What is Violence Against Women?
'Any act of gender based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life’ - 1993 Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women.
Violence Against Women Covers
• Domestic Violence
Domestic Violence is the actual or threatened physical, emotional, psychological, sexual or financial abuse of a woman by a partner, family member or someone with whom there is, or has been, a close relationship. This abuse also relates to the perpetrator allowing or causing a child to witness, or be at risk of witnessing, domestic abuse."
Sexual violence includes a range of different behaviours, many of which - such as sexual assault or rape - are crimes. Sexual abuse is often a component of domestic violence - for example, partners and former partners may use force, threats or intimidation to engage in sexual activity; they may taunt or use degrading treatment related to sexuality, force the use of pornography, or force their partners to have sex with other people. Rape and sexual assault are crimes, whether or not they take place within marriage or between partners or ex-partners.
• Stalking and harassment – Protection Against Stalking
Stalking is a form of harassment generally comprised of repeated persistent following with no legitimate reason and with the intention of harming, or so as to arouse anxiety or fear of harm in the person being followed. Stalking may also take the form of harassing telephone calls, computer communications, letter-writing, etc
Sexual Trafficking is the recruitment, transportation (within national or across international borders),transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation. Sexual trafficking is accomplished by means of fraud, deception, threat of or use of force, abuse of a position of vulnerability, and other forms of coercion
Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedures that intentionally alter or injure female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
A forced marriage is a marriage conducted without valid consent of one or both parties, and some form of duress is involved. This could be emotional pressure – for example, parents may insist that rejection of this marriage partner would bring shame to the family; or arrangements for marriage might be made (perhaps abroad) without intended bride being told the purpose of the trip.
Honour Based Violence can be distinguished from other forms of violence, as it is often committed with some degree of approval and/or collusion from family and / or community members. Examples may include murder, un-explained death (suicide), fear of or actual forced marriage, controlling sexual activity, domestic abuse (including psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional abuse), child abuse, rape, kidnapping, false imprisonment, threats to kill, assault, harassment, forced abortion. This list is not exhaustive.
VAW denies women and girls the most fundamental human rights- life, liberty, bodily integrity, freedom of movement and dignity of the person.